Einstein’s Theory Of Relativity

Einstein's Theory Of Relativity

Einstein’s Theory Of Relativity describes how time and space are connected for objects moving in straight lines at the same speed. Its most prominent aspect concerns objects moving at light speed.


After a day of work, Albert Einstein was exhausted one evening in spring 1905. He decided to take a tramcar home and boarded it. Einstein was known to finish his work quickly in order to be able to take time out and contemplate the truths about the universe.

It was one of his thought experiments that he created on the tram car that revolutionized modern Physics forever.

As Einstein’s Zytglogge clock tower recedes, Einstein wondered what would happen if the tram car receded at the speed light.

He realized that if his goal was to travel, he would be able to do so at The clocks would seem to be completely frozen at 186,000 miles per hour.

Einstein's Theory Of Relativity
Zytglogge clock tower in Bern that inspired Einstein

Einstein also knew that the hands at the clock tower would continue to tick at their normal speed.

For Einstein time had slowed down. This thought was a revelation to Einstein.

Einstein stated that time moves slower when you move faster through space than you do through time. This is how it works. Two of the greatest physicists of all times heavily influenced Einstein’s work

His idol Isaac Newton discovered the laws for motion and then he developed the laws for electromagnetism. James Clerk Maxwell drafted the following. Newton’s laws insist that velocities can never be absolute

However, they are always relative. Therefore, the phrase “with regard to” must be added to their magnitudes. A train traveling at 40 km/h is for instance, relative to someone who is at rest It travels only 20km/h compared to a train traveling 20km/h in the opposite direction.

Einstein's Theory Of Relativity
moving train

It travels 60 km/h relative to a train traveling in the other direction at 20 km/h.

This holds true also for the velocities of Earth, Sun, and the entire Milky Way galaxy. Maxwell, on the other hand, found that light’s speed is exorbitantly slow. 299,792,458 M/s, regardless of who observes.

However, Maxwell’s idea seems to be incompatible with Newton’s concept of relative velocity Newton’s laws should be universal if they are true. 

Why should the speed at which life moves be an exception to Newton’s laws?

Einstein was faced with a difficult dilemma. You can see the conflict between Maxwell’s ideas and Newton’s with Einstein’s brilliant thought experiments Einstein pictured himself standing on a train platform and seeing two lightning bolts strike either side of his face.

Because Einstein is exactly in the middle of both strikes, The resulting light beams are received by both his eyes simultaneously. But things get complicated when Einstein is whizzing by at the speed light, while someone else on a train passes this event.

If the speed limit of light is consistent with the rules of relativity then no one on the train would be able to witness both lightning strikes simultaneously Logically, the light closest to the man on the train would reach them first.

The magnitude of the measurement of the speed of light taken by each man would be different.

This would contradict an apparent fundamental truth about the universe Einstein was faced with a difficult decision. Either Newton’s laws weren’t complete or the speed of light wasn’t a universal constant.

Einstein had to make a difficult choice. Einstein saw that these two ideas could coexist with a slight tweak to Newton’s laws. Einstein suggested that the time for the man in the train be used to eliminate the measurement discrepancy. You must slow down in order to compensate for the slower speed.

Einstein called this absurdity “Time Dilation”, and his newfound theory, “Special Relativity”. Newton believed that time was moving unflinchingly forward in one direction.

Einstein had only realized that time stretches out and contracts with velocity. Because of its malleability, time is like space. Each deserves its own dimension, but Einstein said that they were one and the exact same.

They formed a four-dimensional fabric, or continuum, called space-time. The universe’s mundane events would be unfolded upon this foundation.

Einstein suggested that large objects such as the Sun don’t pull bodies like Earth with mysterious forces. They were not tugged by an inexplicable force, but rather curled the space-time fabric around them This steep valley is created by forcing earth to descend

An example of a very simplified analogy is the dip made by a falling bowling ball in a trampoline. If you placed a marble on the trampoline, it would instantly roll towards the bowling ball at the center.

This holds true even for Earth’s gravity. Because space is so distorted by Earth’s mass, we are pushed to the ground from above. However, the slump in fabric all around Earth isn’t uniform.

Einstein's Theory Of Relativity
Example of General Relativity

As we approach the center of Earth’s gravity, where it is at its maximum curvature, our gravity intensifies.

As the trampoline marble accelerates towards the Earth, an object falling towards the earth will also accelerate as it races towards its center. It falls faster when it is just above the surface than when it is slightly higher in the atmosphere

However, special relativity says that the faster you move through space, the slower you move through time. This means that time is slower at the surface of Earth than it is above the atmosphere.

Get it now, Different planets have different masses and therefore different gravitational strengths They also accelerate objects at different speeds, as we know this to mean a variable passing of time.

This is exactly what happens when interstellar’s protagonists land on a world that is within the reach of a black hole. Gravitation on the planet is so strong that one hour on its surface is equivalent to seven-year on earth

How motion affects time

Let’s look at the simplest timekeeping mechanism to understand how motion affects time. Each time the photon is reflected, a second passes Let’s say that two people are in a spaceship just above Earth’s atmosphere, and one is on top of a small hill.

Just above the Earth’s surface, They are both watching a man fall out of space to the ground. Let’s suppose that the falling man is carrying a photon clock.

This was explained just a moment ago What does each man observe when the other falls behind? They observe something very similar to what a stationary observer would see when watching a ball bounce on a moving train.

The light from his clock appears to be moving in triangles as the man falls out of space.

This would mean that light travels long distances. Thus, the second’s duration is extended. It is evident that the length of triangles and the duration of light traces is related to the length of a triangle.

The velocity of the falling man is proportional to his speed Recall that objects closer to Earth’s center fall faster if we remember. The time appears to be slower for the man on top. It does not apply to the man on the spaceship. 

The difference is insignificant, of course. Nanoseconds are the difference in time between clocks at the top of mountains and on the surface of Earth.

Time dilation is a problem for every clock, regardless of whether it depends on basic electromagnetism and a complex combination. The laws of motion and electromagnetism are two examples. 

Even biological processes can be slowed down. Your head is slightly older than your feet, it’s true


Einstein’s theory about relativity and time dilation goes hand in hand. Albert Einstein is the most well-known physicist. He formulated the theory on relativity which gives the Energy mass equivalent formula.

This is directly connected to time dilation. But what exactly is time dilation? Spacetime and time dilation are both interrelated.

Einstein’s contribution to physics was one of its most significant. He explained the concept of space-time. Space-time can be described as a mathematical model which combines the three dimensions space and one dimension time into a single, four-dimensional continuum.

It is important to know that the general theory and the special theory are two different things.

This animated video will give you a quick explanation of time dilation, Einstein’s theory about relativity, and how time slows down when there is a moving vehicle.

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